The Various Components of Information Technology
In a broad sense, information is structured, processed and organised information designed for a particular purpose. It provides context for other data and helps effective decision making. For instance, a single consumer’s sale at a certain restaurant is data the same becomes information if the restaurant can identify the least popular or most popular dish. In the context of business, information is key to obtain needed information, process it efficiently and make informed decisions.
Information is used in almost every aspect of business and commerce. Large organisations use information to improve their business, by analysing their customers’ buying patterns, target markets and competition. Smaller companies use information to improve service levels and as a source of information about sales trends and demographic information. Governments often use information to implement policy and plan future development. Large and small businesses have developed sophisticated systems that extract and use information to serve their needs.
Information science deals with the use of information in all its forms (such as text, film, audio, or computer software). In computer lingo, information is defined as a collection of data that makes up the totality of a system or activity. The primary use of information is to satisfy a need, either for a product or a process. Information science uses various methods to collect and process data, ranging from traditional data analysis and survey methods to more sophisticated techniques like models and algorithms. Computers, mainly used as a source of information systems, can be programmed to store, manipulate and retrieve data in specific formats depending on the user’s needs.
Information technology, on the other hand, deals with the use of information technology in business. Internet, email and telephone services are common examples of information technology. E-commerce, the process of selling online, is an important part of information technology.
Data processing involves the use of computers and software to extract, organize and transmit information. Processing power and storage capacity vary according to the purpose. Data processing involves big data and may require special computers. Information technology refers to the use of computers for communication and data storage. It is essential for organizations to analyze their use of information technology and establish how it affects the organization.
Today, more industries and businesses are relying on the Internet for marketing and other purposes. Electronic commerce or e commerce helps in conducting transactions quickly and efficiently. It allows customers to make purchases from the comfort of their homes. The Internet also provides customers with information on products and prices. With the help of e commerce, the customer is able to get his or her required information, even without going to the store.